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May 21st, 2013:

The incinerator is back

Published on South China Morning Post (

Home > Elsie Leung caught up in Rusal’s byzantine politics

Tuesday, 21 May, 2013, 12:00am



Howard Winn

The incinerator is back

So despite promises of a rethink, the Environmental Protection Department has included the Shek Wu Chau incinerator in its report, “Hong Kong: Blueprint for Sustainable Use of Resources 2013-2022”, released yesterday. There is a lot to applaud in it but it will disappoint green groups who’d been hoping that the government would take another look at the proposed technology as well as reconsider its location. There is a lack of public confidence here over incineration.

While there are numerous reports of incinerators being closed around the world because of environmental and public health concerns, it is true that modern incinerators produce fewer emissions. What is not so clear is the impact on public health of these lower emissions.

Those present at the recent public forum, which was part of the International Conference on Solid Waste 2013 – Innovation in Technology and Management, were told that modern incinerators did not pose a threat to public health. But this was from a panel most of whom appeared to be closely aligned to the incinerator industry. It was quite striking that no one spoke from a public health perspective.

It may well be that modern incinerators are completely harmless, but given the history of the industry, it would be good to see some documentation from a credible source outside the incinerator industry on the impact on public health from countries that use modern incinerators.

As for the location, several of the incinerator experts said privately that it seemed bizarre to put the incinerator on an island instead of closer to the users of the electricity it is supposed to generate.


Lai See

Elsie Leung Oi-Sie


Burden of disease attributable to air pollutants from municipal solid waste incinerators in Seoul, Korea: a source-specific approach for environmental burden of disease.

Sci Total Environ. 2011 May 1;409(11):2019-28. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2011.02.032. Epub 2011 Mar 21.

Burden of disease attributable to air pollutants from municipal solid waste incinerators in Seoul, Korea: a source-specific approach for environmental burden of disease.


Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Republic of Korea.


Few studies have attempted to quantify the integrated health burden, incorporating both mortality and morbidity as these factors pertain to air pollutants, on the population in the vicinity of the incinerators. The aims of this study are to estimate the attributable burden of disease caused by incinerators in Seoul, Korea and to present an approach based on source-specific exposure for the estimation of the environmental burden of disease (EBD). With particular attention on the development of a measurement means of the source-specific, exposure-based population attributable fraction (PAF), we integrated air dispersion modeling, Geographic Information Systems (GIS), the population distribution of exposure, and the exposure-response relationship. We then estimated the PAFs caused by additional concentrations of four air pollutants (PM(10), NO(2,) SO(2), and CO) emitted from four municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) in Seoul in 2007. We, finally, estimated the attributable burden of disease, using the estimated PAF and the disability-adjusted life years (DALY) method developed by the Global Burden of Disease Group of the World Health Organization (WHO). The PAF for NO(2) to all-cause mortality was assessed at approximately 0.02% (95% CI: 0.003-0.036%), which was the highest among all air pollutants. The PAFs for respiratory and cardiovascular disease were 0.12% (95% CI: 0.01-0.16%) and 0.10% (95% CI: 0.04-0.16%), respectively. The sum of the attributable burden of disease for four pollutants was about 297 person-years (PYs) (95% CI: 121-472 PYs) when the incinerators observed to the emission standards. The attributable burdens of respiratory disease and cardiovascular disease were about 0.2% and 0.1%, respectively, of the total burden of respiratory disease and cardiovascular disease of Seoul citizens for the year 2007. Although the air emissions from one risk factor, an incinerator, are small, the burden of disease can be significant to the public health when population exposure is considered.

Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.



[PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

can’t find version of this to read for free:

Policy makers should take into account the enormous burden of disease caused by toxic chemicals emitted from waste incinerator

Policy makers should regard the enormous burden of disease caused by waste incinerator emissions, 17 Nov 2011

By Pat Costner, Global Alliance for Incinerator Alternatives

In his letter to the editors of the scientific journal, Science of the Total Environment, Giovanni Ghirga of the International Society of Doctors for Environment warns, “Policy makers responsible for evaluating and managing air polluting sources should take into account the enormous burden of disease caused by toxic chemicals emitted from waste incinerator.”

Dr. Ghirga wrote his letter in response to the recently published study, “Burden of disease attributable to air pollutants from municipal solid waste incinerators in Seoul, Korea: a source-specific approach for environmental burden of disease,” by Kim et al. (2011). He noted that the authors of this study concluded that “the impact of the incinerators on citizens’ health was quite substantial.” However, Dr. Ghirga argued that the impact “could be worse if other important outcomes as subclinical neurotoxicity from lead, cadmium, mercury, antimony, arsenic, chromium, cobalt, copper, manganese, nickel, vanadium, and tin in children, were considered” and pointed to the continuing “silent pandemic of subclinical neurotoxicity described by Grandjean and Landrigan.

Dr. Ghirga also addressed endocrine disruptors, noting “A growing body of evidence suggests that numerous chemicals, emitted also from incinerators, may interfere with the endocrine system and produce adverse effects in humans …” In addition, he said, “For many toxic chemicals emitted from incinerator, i.e. arsenic, an accumulating number of investigations indicate that they affect the epigenetic status of cells and tissues …”

Dr. Kim replied to Dr. Ghirga’s letter, “We agree with Dr. Ghirga’s opinion that it could be worse if other
important outcomes as subclinical neurotoxicity from lead, cadmium, mercury, antimony, arsenic, chromium, cobalt, copper, manganese, nickel, vanadium, and tin in children, were considered,” and concluded, “We point out that policy makers should take into account the enormous burden of disease
caused by toxic chemicals emitted from waste incinerators.”


Ghirga, G., 2011. Policy makers should take into account the enormous burden of disease caused by toxic chemicals emitted from waste incinerator. Sci Total Environ 409: 5524.

Grandjean, P., and P. Landrigan, 2006. Developmental neurotoxicity of industrial chemicals. Lancet 16:2167–78.

Kim J., et al., 2011. Burden of disease attributable to air pollutants from municipal solid waste incinerators in Seoul, Korea: a source-specific approach for environmental burden of disease. Sci Total Environ 409: 2019–28.

Kim, Y.-M., 2011. Response to the letter to editor by Dr. Giovanni Ghirga commenting on ‘the burden of disease caused by toxic chemicals emitted from waste incinerator’. Sci Total Environ 409: 5525-6.

[GAIA] Study on Utilization of Incineration Waste Ash Residues in Portland Cement Clinker

Utilization of Incineration Waste Ash Residues in Portland  Cement Clinker

Charles Hoi King Lam*, John Patrick Barford, Gordon


Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering , Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Hong Kong, China


MSWI (municipal solid waste incineration) bottom ash and fly ash and sewage sludge ash are evaluated as raw materials for Portland cement clinker according to the chemical composition analysis. According to the phase and chemical composition of the clinker obtained, the MSWI bottom ash with up to 6 % addition in clinkers show acceptable phase compositions and many of the major phases which are comparable with ordinary Portland cement clinker. High phosphorus content and sulfur trioxide content in sewage sludge ash may suppress the formation of the main phases. Fly ash clinkers may lead to insufficient CaO for alite formation. A proper pre-treatment would be required to use fly ash or sewage sludge ash. The heavy metals are concentrated and stabilized in the clinker matrix with low leachability. Further tests on the physical properties of the clinkers should be taken to fully understand the feasibility of ash based clinker.


The authors would like to thank Green Island Cement Ltd for their financial support and technical advice.

Download PDF : 127

Watchdog steps up pressure on non-transparent Hong Kong charities

Published on South China Morning Post (

Home > Watchdog steps up pressure on non-transparent Hong Kong charities

Watchdog steps up pressure on non-transparent Hong Kong charities

Tuesday, 21 May, 2013, 12:00am

LifestyleFamily & Education


Nora Tong

Pressure is growing for greater transparency in the surprisingly murky world of charity finances, writes Nora Tong

If it feels as though you rarely venture out on weekends without being tapped for charitable donations by volunteers, you’re probably right. Non-profit groups have mushroomed – more than 7,000 organisations are registered as charities with the Inland Revenue Department – and many hit the streets on flag-selling drives.

But with so many groups seeking funds, it can be tough figuring out which cause to give to. Are the organisations all they’re cracked up to be and how much of the contribution really goes to people in need?

Bonita Wang Zejin found herself asking these questions a few years ago when a friend, whose birthday was approaching, urged their circle of friends to donate to a charity instead of spending on a gift.

“We had no clue where to donate to,” Wang says. “I found it odd there wasn’t a platform for the public to find out more about charities, when even for things like eating ice cream, you can go to [online listing] OpenRice for references.”

That was how she came to set up the charity watchdog iDonate in December 2010. Wang quit her job as an auditor and manager of a private equity fund and recruited a full-time analyst and a part-time programmer for her iDonate team. Together, they evaluate the operational efficiency and transparency of NGOs based on available data. Information is usually drawn from annual reports, often downloaded from the charity’s website, or from audited financial reports purchased from the companies registry information system.

Getting an accurate picture can be tough even for motivated teams like iDonate. There is no central authority that registers and monitors charities, and non-profits are not required to disclose donation amounts or financial information to the public.

Donors who wish to check a non-government group’s financial status and whether contributions are spent in line with its objectives will find that such reports aren’t uniformly presented. Some charities such as women’s empowerment group HER Fund, present a full audited financial report on their website. Others make just a few pages available. Some indicate through graphs and charts how donations are distributed – without revealing absolute figures. And there are those that do not disclose anything at all.

Depending on how they are established, charities are overseen by different government departments. Statutory bodies such as the Tung Wah Group of Hospitals and orphan welfare group Po Leung Kuk must maintain audited accounts of all transactions and be open for inspection by their directors or any person appointed by the chief executive of Hong Kong.

Maintaining transparency entails a cost, but if you think it is something worth doing, you will do it

Linda To, executive director, HER fund

A charity set up as an incorporated company – Save the Children Hong Kong, for example – is required to file annual returns with the Companies Registry. The report covers basics such as its address, board of directors and, where appropriate, any mortgage it takes out.

But unincorporated groups do not have to account for their spending at all.

Groups that secure tax-exempt status with the Inland Revenue Department are subject to periodic review, during which they may be asked to submit accounts and annual reports. Under this review process, charities set up as incorporated companies must submit audited accounts to the IRD, usually every four years. But unincorporated organisations just have to present self-certified accounts.

As Wang sees it, there is unacceptable lack of oversight, arguing that charities are obliged to be transparent about how funds are applied.

“Charities are exempt from taxation and should be accountable to the public,” she says. “Every member of the public should have free access to the audited account of a charitable group. Information on any related transaction – such as whether the charity is paying for the fundraising services provided by a company owned by a member of the charity’s board – should also be disclosed.”

That is why iDonate tries to evaluate the performances of the various charities. Adapting methods used by charity watchdogs in the United States, Wang’s team works out measures such as fundraising efficiency, proportion of fundraising expense, programme expenditure (including project workers’ pay), salaries (including general office staff) and administrative costs in relation to annual spending. The lower the proportion, the higher the score of a charity.

An NGO that devotes more than 85 per cent of its total expenditure on programmes will gain the full mark of 10 points, whereas one in which programme expenses make up only 49 per cent of the total will get 2.5 points.

In countries like the US, it is generally unacceptable for a charity to direct less than 60 per cent of its spending towards programmes, Wang says.

However, Christine Fang Meng-seng, chief executive of the Hong Kong Council of Social Service (HKCSS), finds that categorising different types of spending is not always clear cut. “Marketing expenditure is usually considered a type of administrative cost. But what if we’re talking about a charity that fights human trafficking and needs to spend more on public communication? Should this come under programme expenses?

“Some NGOs are reluctant to disclose financial information for fear it will be subject to simplistic comparisons and be misunderstood, since different people would interpret the information differently,” Fang says.

HKCSS, an umbrella group representing more than 400 charities, also manages an initiative called WiseGiving, which aims to inform the public about the work of charities, while monitoring and educating these organisations.

Fang maintains that charities have always had a degree of transparency. Groups receiving government subsidy must account for how it is spent and abide by certain rules. They also have to be accountable to donors, from private foundations to organisations such as the Jockey Club.

But as public demand for transparency grows, NGOs need to work to build trust, Fang says. This includes disclosing the sources of their income and how the resources are used to carry out their mandate, as well as governance issues. Charities should also account for specific activities such as street fundraisers.

Faced with a swelling morass of charities, the government began consultations two years ago to draft a Charities Law, led by a subcommittee under the Law Reform Commission.

The consultation paper has proposed changes from how to define and register a charitable organisation to policies on monitoring and regulating charities more effectively. Suggestions include the mandatory submission of financial accounts, with auditing depending on income levels, and the setting up of a regulatory body to issue fundraising permits and to monitor how those funds are used.

Fang believes such requirements will not only improve NGO transparency but also help the public better understand their work.

Linda To Kit-lai, executive director of the HER Fund, says upholding accountability is particularly important for charities like hers. The group derives income from fundraisers and private donations.

“Our existence depends on the support from our donors, who have every right to know how we are spending their money,” says To. “Maintaining transparency entails a cost, but if you think it is something worth doing, you will do it. We pay our auditor about HK$4,000 a year, and we have no hesitation paying that fee.”

However, a proposal to set up a commission as the sole regulatory body for charities is more controversial.

This commission would be empowered to investigate problematic charities; suspend or remove their trustees, directors and officers in cases of misconduct or mismanagement; and even deregister a charity when it fails to comply with legal obligations.

NGO leaders such as To worry about vesting too much power in one body. “There are no details with regards to the make-up of the commission. Will all members be pro-government? We need diverse voices,” she says.

Church groups conducting underground activities in the mainland are concerned about government interference and the possible suppression of charities, says Bernard Chan, who chairs the sub-committee drafting law recommendations. Although countries such as Britain have instituted such a law, Chan reckons it will be a challenge to do the same in Hong Kong amid a politically polarised environment.

“There’s a lack of trust in the government,” he says. “But maintaining the status quo [on how charities are monitored] cannot be the solution either.”

It may be a few years before there is a charity law in Hong Kong. In the meantime, Chan says civil society must hold charities to their mission. “[Pressure from] donors is an effective means to facilitate NGO transparency. I hope it won’t take a big scandal or crisis before we can work on the monitoring and regulation of charities,” he says. [1]





Non-profit sector




On Backchat, we’ll be talking about waste management after the government announced its blue print. What are the key issues and initiatives?  After 9.15am, Raymond Wong leaves People Power – why? (8.30am-9.30am, call in on 233 88 266, facebook or email

8:30am-9:15am Blueprint for Waste Management (click to listen)

Dr. Jonathan Wong, Director, Hong Kong Organic Resource Centre/ Professor, Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University (gee, Sino Forest disappeared !)

Christine Fong, Sai Kung District Councilor

Miranda Yip, Assistant Manager, Policy Officer, Friends of the Earth

listen to the program 0830 – 0915 yesterday

Blueprint for Waste Management
On Backchat, we’ll be talking about waste management after the government announced its blue print. What are the key issues and initiatives?  (8.30am-9.30am, call in on 233 88 266, or email

8:30am-9:15am Blueprint for Waste Management

Dr. Jonathan Wong, Director, Hong Kong Organic Resource Centre/ Professor, Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University

Christine Fong, Sai Kung District Councilor

Miranda Yip, Assistant Manager, Policy Officer, Friends of the Earth

Airline emissions deal uncertain ahead of EU’s September deadline

Published on South China Morning Post (

Home > Airline emissions deal uncertain ahead of EU’s September deadline

Airline emissions deal uncertain ahead of EU’s September deadline

Tuesday, 21 May, 2013, 12:00am


Reuters in Montreal

China, US opposed EU’s carbon trading plan; deadline for new proposal is September

Hope is fading for a global deal to regulate the airline industry’s greenhouse gas emissions ahead of an Autumn deadline, even though failure could push the industry back to the brink of a trade war over the European Union’s emissions trading system.

Last November the EU suspended its controversial scheme to force all airlines to buy carbon credits for any flight arriving in or departing from European airspace.

The scheme had pitted European states against China, the United States, India, and others, who said it violated their sovereignty. The EU said it had to act, after more than a decade of inaction on the environmental impact of aviation.

European officials gave the United Nations’ agency that governs aviation, the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO), more time to craft a compromise in the form of a global regulatory regime. They have vowed to bring their own programme back into force unless they see real progress by the ICAO Assembly, which runs from September 24 to October 4.

But there is still disagreement on how to charge for emissions from flights that cross borders; how to deal fairly with developing countries; and whether airlines, states, or both should be subject to regulation.

“Think of aviation as a microcosm of the big geopolitical process,” said Paul Steele, executive director of the industry group Air Transport Action Group, and one of the technical experts who has advised ICAO on the issue. The Group, a coalition of some 50 plane makers, airlines, and narrower associations like Airports Council International, wants a global emissions regime, not a messy “patchwork” of systems around the world.

Steele said lack of progress on the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the UN’s main climate treaty and home of the Kyoto Protocol, may be holding back talks at ICAO.

Take “common but differentiated responsibilities”, an argument that developed countries should shoulder most of the burden of cutting emissions.

That has been a key sticking point at ICAO. Steele said some countries fear that if they compromise at ICAO, it will prejudice broader talks ahead of 2015, when climate negotiators hope to clinch a new deal to cut emissions under the UN Framework Convention.

And so, even as aviation industry leaders urge ICAO to hammer out a deal, talks at a high-profile ICAO committee have effectively broken down, and a key member of the agency’s governing council has said a resolution may not be ready in time for the assembly. That could escalate the conflict. And while China partially lifted a retaliatory blockade of some US$11 billion in Airbus jet orders last month, a new chapter in the conflict could put those orders at risk.

Seeking to break the impasse, ICAO convened a new group, which Kerryn Macaulay, Australia’s council representative, recently said was to include “some of the decision-makers in government” who might be able to hash out compromises.

It was the creation of that “high-level group” that the EU cited when it suspended its scheme. It was just a new committee, but it was seen as a sign of good faith, and an opportunity to get a deal.

But as Macaulay told a conference hosted by the Air Transport Action Group in Montreal on May 13, the high-level group made little progress. Quite the opposite: “In some areas there has been a risk of reopening old issues that the council in fact was recently settled on.”




EU Emissions Trading System

International Civil Aviation Organization

Bold vision of reclamation

Tuesday, 21 May, 2013, 12:00am


I refer to the report (“Unease over reclamation”, April 29), and would like to provide information on the vision and overall planning in the proposals for reclamation outside Victoria Harbour.

When identifying the five possible locations for reclamation, priority is given to near-shore reclamation that can be efficiently connected to existing roads and developed areas, and to man-made shorelines distant from existing communities, while avoiding ecologically sensitive areas.

Lung Kwu Tan is one such site that can be well integrated into existing transport infrastructure, providing an area of economic growth and job opportunities. Ma Liu Shui is a location that can provide land for much-needed housing and community facilities, hence addressing the pressing housing demand. Close to Sha Tin town centre, it can be easily linked with the existing railway. The site’s potential could be further enhanced by integrating with the land released by relocating the sewage treatment plant nearby into a rock cavern.(CTA: why not move Legco and Govt HQ from its prime site to a cavern and build the proposed incinerator on the current Admiralty site since it is so modern and clean and adjoining the sea?)

The two sites on Lantau have the merit of connecting with major economic and tourist infrastructure (for example, the airport, Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macau bridge), (CTA: so we want more Mainland and other tourists ??) being in line with the HK2030 Study and the Revised Lantau Concept Plan to facilitate strategic economic development and supporting development of Tung Chung. On the other hand, Tsing Yi southwest, with its easy access to existing transportation nodes, has the potential of becoming a regional logistics node.(CTA: this guy needs testing for hallucinogens? – Shenzhen port will soon be world number 2 and Shanghai (world no 1 shipping port) are less expensive than Hong Kong and are closer to the manufacturing sources as are Mainland airports with their new runways and flight clearances.)

The above demonstrates that there are strategic thoughts and planning underpinning the reclamation proposals. It must be emphasised that we did not start from ground zero, as much planning has been done in the past: the Lantau concept plan, various infrastructural planning, and the studies for the tourism and logistics industries. All these guide and back our recommendations.(CTA: sorry no more room in teh street or in the hotels and the same-day tourists do not benefit the people, they benefit the tycoons)

The proposed artificial islands in the central waters between Lantau and Hong Kong Island represent a different proposition. They are envisaged as a long-term option for new development areas.(CTA – indeed they are intended to become the new ash lagoons for the daily 1,000 tonnes of ash from the SWC planned incinerator !) With fewer environmental constraints and high planning flexibility, they can become the urban extension (of our landfills) if a convenient and cost-effective transport system can be provided. We hope to receive public support for the next step on artificial islands: conducting studies on engineering feasibility, possible land uses and transport links, and carrying out assessment on the potential impact on the environment, marine ecology and traffic.

It is a bold vision that we hope to discuss with the public and gain their support.

Edwin K.H. Tong, head of civil engineering office, Civil Engineering and Development Department





Source URL (retrieved on May 21st 2013, 7:32am):

Plan aims to address city’s ‘grave problem’ with waste

Tuesday, 21 May, 2013, 12:00am

NewsHong Kong


Joyce Ng, Stuart Lau and Cheung Chi-fai

Government unveils blueprint for tackling waste, with a target of 40 per cent reduction in the amount sent to landfill by 2022

Plans to cut by 40 per cent the amount of rubbish each person in Hong Kong dumps in landfills by 2022 were unveiled yesterday as part of a blueprint for tackling the city’s “grave problem” with waste.

But officials are likely to face uphill battles in implementing the plans, with an incinerator and a waste charge – both bound to meet objections from residents and politicians – as two key components.[1]

“We have a grave problem about waste in Hong Kong,” Secretary for Environment Wong Kam-sing said.

“Our daily per capita waste load is higher than that of other developed cities in Asia, and our infrastructure to deal with it is incomplete. We need to urgently fill in the gaps.”

Under the “blueprint for sustainable use of resources”, the government aims to reduce the amount of waste dumped in landfills from 1.27kg for each person in 2011 to 1kg in 2017 and to 0.8kg by 2022.

Currently, 48 per cent of the city’s waste is recycled and the rest goes to three landfills, which will all be full by 2020.

The blueprint says that by 2022, the recycling rate will reach 55 per cent and expanded landfills will take 22 per cent, leaving the remaining 23 per cent to be burnt. The structure is similar to that in Seoul.

Of the range of measures he outlined at a press conference, Wong said incineration was the most crucial, while acknowledging uncertainty about it.

Lawmakers rejected a funding request by the previous government for an incinerator at Shek Kwu Chau, near Cheung Chau. The proposal has also been challenged in court and a verdict is pending.

Details of waste charging, which had been “the most effective means” for Taipei and South Korea to cut waste, would be released in the middle of this year, Wong said. To seek support for landfill expansion, needed before the incinerator was ready, he said a proposal would be put forward for odorous waste, such as that from sewage treatment and household garbage, to be dumped well away from residential areas.

The minister called on the community to participate to help cut waste at source, such as in kitchens.

But officials stopped short of explaining how food waste, the biggest component of landfill refuse – accounting for 40 per cent of it – would be reduced. They are seeking sites for two more recycling plants in addition to two that are planned, but it is unclear how much food waste these can process.

Angus Wong, policy advocacy manager of the World Green Organisation, said the blueprint hinged heavily upon incineration and waste charging.

“Given the political climate, both options are not necessarily well supported,” he said.

Friends of the Earth environmental affairs officer Celia Fung said the 40 per cent reduction target was aggressive but she did not see adequate infrastructure being proposed, especially for food waste. She also called for more support for the recycling industry.

Cyd Ho Sau-lan, chairwoman of the Legislative Council’s environmental panel, said the new targets were “not aggressive at all”, noting that the target recycling rate of 55 per cent in 2022 was still lower than the rate of 61 per cent in South Korea.

On average, Hong Kong people generate 1.36kg of waste each a day, compared to 0.77kg in metropolitan Tokyo, 0.95kg in Seoul, and 1kg in Taipei.

Comments: May 21st 2013 6:23am

No doubt they are using HK’s 7 million population to calculate the numbers and proposed reductions – but what about the tourists and their daily waste (133.192 per day) to the 7m HK number? Wong says Plan A is incineration whilst the rest of the world iow embracing plasma gasification. ‘There’s no Plan B if Govt loses the judicial review’ he states seemingly pressurizing the JR judge to hurry his verdict. Yet by weight after conversion by incineration, 22% bottom ash and 7% toxic fly ash remains that must be treated and landfilled (the Govt prefers to tell us only 10% by volume remains) but also tells us our landfills are full, so will they export the ash residues ? – no, they intend man-made islands in the sea near Cheung Chau as the new ash lagoons. A recent peer reviewed report from Spain shows increased deaths and cancers downwind of modern incinerators, Macau has commissioned a like investigation and in UK Imperial College is due to complete a similar investigation by April 2014. The Legco environmental panel knocked back incineration unanimously last year ; there is no reason for them to change their minds now. Wong and HKG need a Plan B which starts with mandatory separation at source and plasma gasification plants at our landfills.
HK Tourism 2012 Total 48,615,113 +16.0%
Mainland China 34,911,395 +24.2%