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Open military airspace to ease jams, says study

Sunday, 15 June, 2008, 12:00am

Yau Chui-yan

Flight limitations in Pearl River Delta adding millions to fuel costs

The central government should consider opening up military airspace and introducing integrated air-traffic management to ease air congestion in the Pearl River Delta region, researchers have said.

The suggestions were made in a Chinese University study that found congestion above the region’s five airports costs airlines hundreds of millions of dollars in extra fuel costs – partly as a result of having to constantly switch between three air-traffic control centres.

The airports at Hong Kong, Macau, Shenzhen, Zhuhai and Guangzhou, are served by air-navigation services in Guangzhou, Zhuhai and Hong Kong.

‘Aircraft flying near or across sector boundaries are frequently delayed as they are transferred from one controlling facility to another,’ the paper says.

It says more runways will not necessarily provide more capacity if the airspace congestion cannot be solved.

The Airport Authority began the second phase of a study on a third runway last month.

The researchers suggested that Beijing could open up military airspace for civilian use whenever possible, a principle widely adopted in Europe and the United States.

‘The dominance of Chinese military control over airspace is one of the reasons leading to airspace congestion. Also, there are more and more planes but the airspace remains limited,’ Law Cheung-kwok, a member of the research team, said.

‘But in the US, the Federal Aviation Authority owns and manages all the airspace. It provides the same services to the military as to civilians. This means the airspace can be better co-ordinated,’ Dr Law said.

According to the Civil Aviation Department, all airspace within the Hong Kong flight information region is available for civilian use.

It could not comment on mainland airspace.

Under requirements enforced by mainland authorities since colonial days, aircraft crossing from Hong Kong into Zhuhai airspace have to fly at about 5,000 metres, to minimise the effect on other air traffic. It has become known in aviation circles as an ‘invisible wall’.

The study found that seven out of every 10 Dragonair mainland flights, 90 per cent of all its total flights, experienced delays in 2006. In 2004 the figure was 3.6 in 10.

Government data quoted in the paper shows that more than 3,000 flights from Hong Kong were delayed in 2006, more than three times the number recorded in 2004.

The paper also estimated that extra fuel costs from detours caused by the ‘invisible wall’ amounted to about HK$605 million in 2006.

The Civil Aviation Administration of China, the Hong Kong Civil Aviation Department and the Civil Aviation Authority Macau set up a working group in February 2004 to optimise the use of Pearl River Delta airspace.

Last year, the group agreed that a future air-traffic management plan might include changes to airspace structure and establishment of more routes.

In order to alleviate congestion, mainland authorities recently dropped the altitude requirement from 11pm to 7am, the effectiveness of which has been questioned by academics.

‘How many flights are there in this time period?’ Dr Law asked.

The paper also stated that air-traffic congestion within the Pearl River Delta affected Hong Kong most directly.

The Pearl River Delta includes five major airports in close proximity: Guangzhou New Baiyun International Airport, Hong Kong International Airport, Macau International Airport, Shenzhen Baoan International Airport and Zhuhai Airport.

Although Guangzhou airport is about 140km from Hong Kong, the other three airports are less than 60km from the city.

After looking at US and European Union models, the study concluded that an integrated military-civilian air-traffic management infrastructure might be the solution to air congestion in the Pearl River Delta.

The unfriendly skies

Congestion in the Pearl River Delta airspaces is causing problems in the areas of…

Flight time

The percentage of Dragonair flights delayed in 2006: 70%

Fuel consumption

The extra fuel costs incurred by all flights arriving or departing from Chek Lap Kok in 2006: HK$605m



Air Traffic Control



Association of Asia Pacific Airlines

Pearl River Delta

Source URL (retrieved on Aug 2nd 2013, 3:58pm):

Biofuels from food crops to be capped following MEPs’ vote

Biofuels from food crops to be capped following MEPs’ vote

The Guardian8 hours ago

MEPs in the influential Environment Committee (ENVI) voted 43-21, with one abstention, to set a cap for fuels made from food crops at 5.5%


Fulcrum BioEnergy Demonstrates Fully-Integrated Process To Convert MSW To Jet Fuel

6/10/2013, Articles

Fulcrum BioEnergy, Inc. announced today that it has successfully demonstrated the conversion of municipal solid waste (“MSW”) – household garbage – into jet and diesel fuels. This demonstrated process adds fuel diversity to Fulcrum’s products and complements its previously demonstrated MSW to ethanol process. Fulcrum’s ability to produce drop-in fuels from MSW opens up an 80 billion gallon per year fuel market and expands its customer base for its national development program.

Recent Studies Indicate Heavy Metal Releases From MSW Landfills

A summary of the SWANA Applied Research Foundation’s findings

550,000 tonnes per annum MSW conversion modular facilities

Solena Fuels’ Projects

Our model is to offer an end to end solution to our customers and end users using our proprietary technology as the key enabler. We co-develop our projects with leaders at their respective major hubs. In addition to the list of projects below, additional efforts are underway with other industrial end-users and one of the world’s largest shipping companies.

Solena Fuels works with British Airways

GreenSky London

British Airways (“BA”) is one of the world’s leading airlines transporting over 31 million passengers per year.  In 2010, British Airways publicly announced the GreenSky London project with Solena CEO Dr. Robert T. Do and with support from the Mayor of London.  In November 2012, BA announced its binding offtake and investment commitment to GreenSky London. The BA offtake commitment represents ~$500 million of jet fuel based on today’s sport prices. GreenSky London will transform tonnes of municipal waste – normally sent to landfills – into Bio-SPK, Green FT Diesel and Green FT Naphtha.

Solena Fuels works with Lufthansa


Lufthansa owns the SWISS, Austrian, Brussels and German wings airlines and collectively flies over 100 million passengers per year. In September 2012, Solena and Lufthansa announced the selection of a site at the PCK Industry Park in Schwedt/Oder located approximately 50 miles northeast of Berlin near the Poland border. PCK Industry Park is the largest contiguous industrial park in northern Brandenburg, strategically located in the northeast greater Berlin-Brandenburg economic area on the Berlin-Szczecin axis. The park is an ideal launch pad for outreach to Eastern and Central Europe, Scandinavia and the Baltic states. Solena Berlin will be of the same design and capacity of GreenSky London.

Solena Fuels works with Qantas


Founded in the Queensland outback in 1920, Qantas has grown to be Australia’s largest domestic and international airline. Registered originally as the Queensland and Northern Territory Aerial Services Limited (QANTAS), Qantas is widely regarded as one of the world’s leading long distance airlines and one of the strongest brands in Australia. Over the next 10 years, the Qantas Group has committed capital investment worth around $23 billion in more fuel efficient, next generation aircraft, such as the Airbus A380, Boeing 787 Dreamliner and Airbus A320 neo. Qantas is committed to renew their current fleet to offer the greatest benefits to fuel efficiency in the long run by replacing older aircraft with new more fuel-efficient aircraft. In addition, Solena is developing an IBGTL facility in Sydney.

· British Airways confirms purchase of biojet fuel

· British Airways pledges 10-year offtake agreement as GreenSky project with Solena gathers momentum on GreenAir Online

· GreenSky London biofuel plant preparing for lift-off

· Airline Weekly – Waiting for a Breakthrough

· Lufthansa quest for new sources of sustainable jet biofuel

· Lufthansa and Solena sign biofuels MoU

· Commercial Scale Bio-SPK Site Identified

· Dr Robert Do appointed CO-Chair of the ACORE Transportation Initiative

· Airlines Begin to Realise Green Fuel is A Complex Proposition

· Oxford Catalysts Selected for GreenSky London Commercial Plant

· British Airways, climate change and a load of rubbish

· British Airways says biofuel “way to survive”

· Quick Win: Aviation Biofuels Offers Breakout for Clean Energy

· Seven ATA Member Airlines Sign Letters of Intent to Negotiate Purchase of Biomass-Derived Jet Fuel from Solena Fuels

· Where there’s muck there’s brass: a sustainable approach to waste management

· Growing a green fuel industry in Australia

· Aviation May Be Biofuels’ Killer App

· Qantas Investigates Sugar Cane as Fuel for Domestic Fleet

· Off Into The Wild Green Yonder

· Agreement between Alitalia and Solena Group

· Which Way to Go With Alternative Energy Stocks

· Qantas on brink of £200m biojet fuel joint venture

30m Gallon Facility to Produce Aviation Biofuels from Waste for United Airlines

30m Gallon Facility to Produce Aviation Biofuels from Waste for United Airlines

6 June 2013

By Ben Messenger
Managing Editor

30m Gallon Facility to Produce Aviation Biofuels from Waste for United Airlines

Seattle, Washington based low carbon sustainable fuel and chemicals specialist, AltAir Fuels has received a definitive purchase agreement from United Airlines (NYSE: UAL) for cost-competitive, advanced biofuels which are to be produced from agricultural wastes and non-edible natural oils at a retooled refinery in California.

(Free webcast available now – Accelerating Biofuels: Waste Gasification to Aviation and Transport Fuels in the UK and US/Canada)

According to the airline, as part of its strategic partnership AltAir Fuels will retrofit part an existing petroleum refinery to become a 30 million gallon (1.14 million litre), advanced biofuel refinery near Los Angeles.

United added that it has collaborated with AltAir Fuels since 2009 and has agreed to buy 15 million gallons (57 million litres) of lower-carbon, renewable jet fuel over a three-year period, with the option to purchase more.

Beginning in 2014 AltAir is expected to begin delivering five million gallons (19 million litres) of renewable jet fuel each year to United, which will use it on flights operating out of its Los Angeles hub (LAX).

The airline said that it is purchasing the advanced biofuel at a price competitive with traditional, petroleum-based jet fuel.


AltAir has partnered with an existing oil refiner for the operation of its first commercial facility and will use the refiner’s existing refinery near Los Angeles.

According to United, thanks to its partnership with AltAir idle refining equipment will be retooled using process technology developed by refining technology supplier and licensor, Honeywell’s UOP.

AltAir has previously worked with Honeywell’s UOP to demonstrate the commercial viability of the Honeywell Green Jet process, which it has licensed.

According to Honeywell UOP its Green Jet process was developed under a grant from the U.S. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, now the U.S. Defense Logistics Agency-Energy, and is a feedstock flexible solution that converts a wide range of sustainable feedstocks li into high-quality, on-spec renewable jet fuel.

The process is based on traditional refining hydroprocessing technology, and works by adding hydrogen to remove the oxygen from the feedstock and then further refining the product to meet the required specifications.

The process produces a bio-synthetic paraffinic kerosene (bio-SPK) or Green Jet Fuel that is then blended with standard jet fuel for use in flight. The resulting fuel meets all of the jet fuel specifications set by qualifying agencies.

According to United Airlines, once operational the facility will be the first refinery in the world capable of the in-line production of both renewable jet and diesel fuels.

Read More

Free Webcast – Accelerating Waste to Fuels: A Commercial and Viable Solution?
Trial projects have successfully converted municipal solid waste into a useable, second generation biofuel. Commercialization is now in full swing with the UK, US and Canada leading the way. Watch WMW’s free on-demand webcast to find out more! Speakers from NNFCC, Solena Fuels and Enerkem

Airbus & Air Canada Explore Waste Based Aviation Biofuels
Air Canada and Airbus have signed an agreement with BioFuelNet to help them find the most promising biofuels for aviation, and will research biofuels made using municipal solid waste and agricultural and forestry waste as feedstocks.

Fulcrum to Develop Aviation Biofuels from Waste with DoD Grant
Pleasanton, California based waste to biofuel specialist, Fulcrum BioEnergy, has been awarded a grant from the U.S. Department of Defense to develop renewable ‘drop in’ aviation biofuels.

Drop In Biofuels from Waste Research Project Launched
Montreal, Canada based waste to biofuels and renewable chemicals specialist, Enerkem has launched a new research project to convert waste into ‘drop in’ biofuels with the Canadian government.

British Airways’ Jet Biofuel Plant Will Open in 2015

British Airways’ Jet Biofuel Plant Will Open in 2015 Leon Kaye | December 6th, 2012 Comments

British Airways, Solena, Solena Fuels, biofuels, jet fuel, aviation fuel, GreenSky Project, Leon Kaye, Fischer-Tropsch, fluor, jet biofuel

British Airways and Solena will soon launch a US$500m biofuel plant

Yesterday, British Airways (BA) announced that it has found a site for a bio-refinery that will generate up to 50,000 tons of jet fuel annually. In a partnership with the American aviation biofuel company Solena Fuels, BA will invest approximately US$500 million in the plant, which will eventually provide the airline a steady source of jet fuel for a minimum of 10 years.

The GreenSky Project, which will soon break ground and become fully operational in 2015, will allow Solena to produce up to 16 million gallons of jet fuel and 40 megawatts of power. The project would also score huge achievements on the waste diversion front: 500,000 tons of waste would become diverted from landfills annually and instead become a feedstock for BA’s new stream of jet fuel.

Solena will produce the jet fuel using the company’s proprietary integrated biomass gasification to liquid process (IBGTL). Solena’s gasifiers will churn municipal waste, along with agricultural and wood waste, into jet, diesel, naptha and MGO fuels via a series of Fischer-Tropsch chemical reactions that in the end will create a greener alternative to conventional hydrocarbons. The strength of Solena’s process is that its gasification process can incorporate various forms of feedstock into a cleaner source of jet fuel. According to Forbes, the Solena-BA venture will be enough to power all flights out of London’s City Airport.

Solena and BA claim that the bio-refinery project will create 1,000 temporary construction positions and 150 jobs within the facility upon completion. The U.S. engineering and construction firm Fluor will serve as the project engineer.

With its massive investment, BA has joined other airlines that have become keen on biofuels as conventional fossil fuels continue to rock the aviation industry. United, its pre-merger competitor Continental, Alaska, the U.S. Navy and KLM are among the organizations that have tested biofuels for their fleets of airplanes. The ability to scale and find reliable sources of feedstock are among the challenges airlines face in incorporating biofuels; in fact, once the GreenSkyProject is at full capacity, it will only provide two percent of BA’s fuel needs. But as aviation companies grapple with high jet fuel prices, the search for alternatives to petroleum will keep them focused on alternative sources of energy in order for them to remain competitive.

Leon Kaye, based in Fresno, California, is a sustainability consultant and the editor

Airbus & Air Canada Explore Waste Based Aviation Biofuels—air-canada-explore-waste-based-aviation-biofuels._printarticle.html

Airbus & Air Canada Explore Waste Based Aviation Biofuels

14 May 2013

By Ben Messenger
Managing Editor of Waste Management World magazine

Sponsored by

Airbus & Air Canada Explore Waste Based Aviation Biofuels

Air Canada and Airbus have signed an agreement with BioFuelNet to help them find the most promising biofuels for aviation, and will research biofuels made using municipal solid waste and agricultural and forestry waste as feedstocks. (Free webcast available now – Accelerating Biofuels: Waste Gasification to Aviation and Transport Fuels in the UK and US/Canada)

BioFuelNet Canada is not-for-profit organisation hosted by Montreal’s McGill University that brings together the Canadian biofuels research community to address the challenges impeding the growth of the advanced biofuels industry, while focusing on non-food biomass as biofuel feedstocks.

According to the organisation, Air Canada (TOR: CA:AC.A) and Airbus – a subsidiary of the European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company (EADS.PA) – are part of a broad coalition, which has pledged carbon neutral growth from 2020 and to reduce greenhouse emissions by 50% by 2050.

BioFuelNet went on to explain that under the agreement the research into the use of aviation biofuels will focus on diverse raw materials, such as municipal solid waste and agricultural and forestry waste, as well as a range of conversion processes available for biofuel production.

The ultimate goal is to determine which advanced biofuels are the most sustainable for aviation.

Reducing the carbon footprint of air travel

“Aviation biofuels are one of the most promising ways to reduce the aviation industry’s carbon footprint, making air travel more environmentally-friendly”, commented Dr. Donald Smith, president of BioFuelNet and McGill University professor

Frederic Eychenne, new energies programme manager at Airbus added: “The commercialisation of sustainable alternative fuels is a key to reducing our sectors carbon footprint.”

Eychenne explained that Air Canada has already operated two flights with biofuel and on each occasion substantially reduced its emissions.

“New technologies, such as alternative fuels, are one of the ways our industry plans to reduce its emissions to meet its target of carbon-neutral growth for 2020 and beyond,” commented Paul Whitty, director of fuel purchasing and supply at Air Canada and chair of the Air Canada Alternative Fuels Working Group.

BioFuelNet was launched in 2012 as part of the Federal Networks of Centres of Excellence program, which funds BioFuelNet through a $25 million grant over 5 years.

The organisation said that it brings together 74 researchers working on advanced biofuels in Canada, as well as industry partners and government, in order to accelerate research, development, and commercialisation of advanced biofuels.

Fodder for fuel: Brisbane Airport seeks alternative

Download PDF : fodder-for-fuel-brisb

WMW20130507-final[1].pdf Waste Management World Webcast hardcopy

Download PDF : WMW20130507-final[1]

Biofuel in aviation: Brisbane to open ‘bioport’

Biofuel in aviation: Brisbane to open ‘bioport’

May 2, 2013 | Filed under: Air Freight,Breaking News,Environment

| Posted by: Charles Pauka

Virgin aircraft in flight

Virgin Australia, Brisbane Airport Corporation and sustainable jet fuel company SkyNRG have announced a feasibility study into the creation of Australia’s

first ‘bio-port’ at Brisbane Airport.

The three parties have agreed to enter a memorandum of understanding that will see them work together towards the ultimate goal of enabling aircraft to be fuelled with sustainable bio-jet fuel at BrisbaneAirport.

The feasibility study will involve researching the locally available feedstocks in Queensland, sustainable and cost-effective methods for transporting them and the most appropriate technology for converting them into biofuel. It is anticipated that the feasibility study will take 12 months to complete.

Virgin Australia chief operating officer Sean Donohue said: “Virgin Australia is committed to developing a local sustainable supply of biofuel for use in our aircraft and we have set ourselves the target of 5% renewable fuel use from 2020.

“South-east Queensland is an ideal base for this project because it is one of our largest hubs and hosts many potential sustainably harvested feedstocks for biofuel, including woody weeds, crop residues and bagasse”, Mr Donohue said.

Roel Hellemons, Brisbane Airport Corporation (BAC) general manager strategic planning and development said: “BrisbaneAirport aims to be the greenest of Australian airports and takes an active approach in supporting its partners to help achieve their environmental goals.

“BAC is proud to be a part of this exciting project to promote the development of sustainable bio-jet fuels in Queensland and we look forward to working with Virgin Australia and SkyNRG to facilitate the planning and development of infrastructure to deliver sustainable bio-jet fuel to airlines in a safe and sustainable way,” Mr Hellemons said.

Dirk Kronemeijer, managing director of SkyNRG said: “We strongly believe in Australia as potentially one of the best places in the world for developing sustainable jet fuels. We are therefore very pleased that our first announced bio-port outside Europe is going to be in Australia. We will do whatever it takes to turn this into a success by developing a local supply chain for sustainable jet fuel that is one day scalable and affordable.”