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Hong Kong has one of the highest roadside PM2.5 levels in the world.

“Exposure to PM _2.5 microns in diameter (PM2.5) over a few hours to weeks can trigger cardiovascular disease–related mortality and nonfatal events;

longer-term exposure (eg, a few years) increases the risk for cardiovascular mortality to an even greater extent than exposures over a few days and r

educes life expectancy within more highly exposed segments of the population by several months to a few years;

reductions in PM levels are associated with decreases in cardiovascular mortality within a time frame as short as a few years; and many credible

pathological mechanisms have been elucidated that lend biological plausibility to these findings. It is the opinion of the

writing group that the overall evidence is consistent with a causal relationship between PM2.5 exposure and

cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This body of evidence has grown and been strengthened substantially since the

first American Heart Association scientific statement was published. Finally, PM2.5 exposure is deemed a modifiable

factor that contributes to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. (Circulation. 2010;121:2331-2378.)”

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